Specializd Operations with Laser, Endoscopy and Laparoscopy Treatment for Cancer Surgery,
Bladder, Prostate and Kidney Stone Treatment, Renal Transplant, Prostate and Urine Related Problems

Know your urinary tract

The urinary tract consists of a pair of kidneys which are situated close to the back of a person. The primary function of the kidney is to filter blood and form urine which contains various waste products of the body. The urine which forms in the kidney briefly stays in a part of the kidney which is called as a pelvis. From the renal pelvis the urine is transported to the urinary bladder via a thin muscular tube which is called as a ureter. The urine is stored in the urinary bladder and from here it is periodically discharged to the exterior through a tube which is called as the urethra. In males the urethra passes through the penis and thus it is much longer than in females. Prostate is an internal organ which is peculiar to males and surrounds the urethra at the base of the bladder. In the younger age it contributes to the seminal fluid but as the male ages it increases in size and creates obstruction to the flow of urine. It can also become cancerous.

Kidney stones

An overview

The urine which is filtered from the kidneys contains minerals like calcium, phosphorus, sodium, uric acid, oxalates.

If the saturation of these minerals increases in the urine or if the flow of urine is retarded there is a risk of deposition and aggregation of these minerals resulting in stone formation.

The fate of these stones is unpredictable. They can remain silent/slowly enlarge and cause damage to the kidney. If they move into the ureter or get stuck in any part of the urinary system they cause severe pain which is due to increased pressure on the closed urinary system. Stones less than 4 mm usually pass spontaneously.

Symptoms of urinary calculi

Pain : it characteristically starts from the back or lower part of the abdomen and spreads to the entire side . Sometimes it is also referred to the external genitalia and thighs The location and severity of the pain depends upon the location of the stone in the urinary tract, the degree of obstruction, and kidney function. Poorly functioning kidneys cause less pain.